Film Review: Swing Kids


  • Actors: Robert Sean Leonard, Christian Bale, Frank Whaley, Barbara Hershey, Tushka Bergen
  • Director: Thomas Carter
  • Rated: PG-13 (Parental Guidance Suggested)
  • Studio: Hollywood Pictures / Buena Vista Home Entertainment
  • Release Year: 1993
  • Run Time:112 minutes

    I do not usually trust Hollywood movies for historical accuracy or realistic non-American characters, even if I enjoy them as entertainment. But my German friend and beta-reader Arnika Kiani, who generously checks my drafts for German authenticity, sent me Swing Kids together with other German history movies.

    I watched Swing Kids, and it was well worth it. The setting is Hamburg in the late 1930’s, around the time of the annexation of Sudetenland and the Anschluss of Austria. The movie shows us a less known part of the Third Reich history: the Swing Youth, a German teenage subculture that emerged in an opposition to the dogmatic Hitler Youth system.  Swing Kids, as they called themselves, listened to jazz and swing music, mimicked British and American fashions, including zoot suits, and danced away at covert parties in clubs and cafes.

    The movie shows how a group of friends, fans of swing and jitterbug, collides with the Nazi regime. Because of a stupid prank, one of the teenage boys has to join the Hitler Youth to avoid further trouble. In solidarity with him, one of his friends joins the Hitler Youth too. At the same time the third friend, a misfit of sorts, develops a blatant defiance of the Nazi order. As we follow the protagonists, we can see how the Nazi ideology affected each of them and the people around, and how personal circumstances could contribute to one’s acceptance or rejection of Nazism. While one of the friends in the Hitler Youth loathes its teachings, the other, on the contrary, falls into them because the Hitler Youth fulfills his yearning for belonging and companionship which his own family failed to provide.

    Although some episodes are reminiscent of a glossy magazine, the movie does provide a glimpse of German life just before the war. It made me realize how the regime validated and cultivated physical violence. The Hitler Youth groups were routinely mustered to help police round up and beat swing kids at secret dance parties. The scenes of the Hitler Youth training and indoctrination helped me visualize the past experiences of my German protagonist who has been heavily influenced by the Hitler Youth.

    Some episodes looked eerily familiar to me. The movie shows how the Hitler Youth leaders taught the children to report their relatives for criticism of the regime, thus nurturing German versions of  Pavlik Morozov, a child hero exalted in the Soviet Union for turning in his father. As a schoolgirl, I read a fair share of textbook stories and verses glorifying Pavlik Morozov in the 1970’s-1980’s. Our school teachers lectured us why it was immoral to follow American fashions and wear jeans, dance to the evil Western music and chew gum. Of course, it was much more benign in my time than in Nazi Germany or the 1930’s Soviet Union. We were under no threat of a jail or labor camp. The worst we faced was a reprimand, a note to the parents or a poor behavior mark in the grade report.

    Swing Kids has a lot of good acting, including a charming Gestapo official played by Kenneth Branagh. The swing dance cameos are carefree and energizing, in a sharp contrast with the scenes of the Hitler Youth drills. The movie shows nuances and shades of gray in human behavior, which makes it ever more interesting to watch. Contrary to the Hollywood custom of happy endings, the finale is dark and foreboding, although some might find it too dramatized.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Not much writing and revising progress, which is not good. I could say that things were too busy at work or that I had a difficult weekend because of teenage dramas in the household, but I do need to learn to carve out my writing time and space;
  • While pondering my review for Swing Kids, I checked some facts on the Hitler Youth online which helped my characterizations.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Jealously guard my writing time and space;
  • Start reading The collapse of the German war economy, 1944-1945: Allied air power and the German National Railway by Alfred C. Mierzejewski, which is ready for pickup at my library.

Book Review: The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche

This unusual book gave me very good insights into the German mindset. Along with creating realistic settings, my major writing challenge is to make my characters’ mentalities true to the era. It is not easy because it is natural for a human to skip or minimize less favorable episodes in his recollections and memoirs.

At the state archives in Berlin Peter Fritzsche found notebooks filled with writings by Franz Göll, an obscure Berliner. Göll was a loner and a graphoman, a low-level white-collar worker, who wrote down his daily impressions, reflections on his romantic affairs, summaries of his self-studies, musings on the official propaganda, and household accounting records that spanned the era from Kaiser Wilhelm II to Ronald Reagan.

Impressed by the scope of Göll’s diaries and memoirs, Peter Fritzche presented his overview and analysis of the remarkable historical evidence in The Turbulent World of Franz Göll. He outlined the evolution of Göll’s views, noted the clarity or ambiguity of different entries and highlighted the limitations of Göll’s judgments together with the depth of his thought, all supported by extensive quotes from Göll’s works.

Because of Göll’s ordinariness, his diaries reflected the popular ideas and stereotypes. At the same time, his inquisitive mind now and then allowed him to rise above the crowd and analyze the political and economical developments with the detachment of a scientific observer. He received only a basic formal education but he also was a voracious reader and avid self-learner.

An important advantage of Göll’s work was the unadulterated documentation of the life around him. Many Third Reich-era diaries and memoirs published after the war have a common defect: they were edited to conform to the new social standards. For example, Ursula von Kardorff, the author of Diary of a Nightmare, Berlin 1942-1945, toned down her epithets for American and British bombers when she prepared her diaries for publication.

But Göll’s writings were not “sanitized”, so they showed his changing perceptions. During the Weimar Republic he wanted a strong leader who could end the strife among numerous political parties and pull Germany out of the economic abyss. The Darwinian idea of survival struggle captivated him, and he applied it to everything beyond the animal world, including European politics. In the 1920’s he noted magazine articles about “the perfection of Aryanism”, “the Karma of the German people” and “a new era of global wars and the resurrection of Germany” although he made no distinction between Germans and Jews yet.

In the 1930’s he analyzed the genetics of his own family (he called it a “hereditary biological study”), much in the spirit of the times. Because of the necessity to prove his Aryanness, he researched his genealogy, which he found interesting and satisfying. He pondered the concept of genetically superior and inferior races, citing the blacks and whites in America. In 1932 he commented on the Jews’ “elaborate and immoral business conduct” and pegged them as “con men”.

Fritzsche demonstrates that Göll supported the Nazi party when it came to power, and how his excitement and anti-Semitism waned after a few years. Nevertheless, the Third Reich years were the zenith of Göll’s career success, when he was promoted to a department manager at Springer Publishers. He enjoyed state-subsidized vacation trips under the Strength through Joy program, which made it possible for an average German to travel as a tourist. It was also the highest point of his civic involvement and authority, when he served as an air raid warden for his apartment block. At the same time he derided the Nazis’ habit of “serving up anti-Semitic atrocities” and likened them to “highly skilled, if voracious, predators”. In his opinion, “the National Socialist regime aimed to commit and bind – preferably crisscross – every single person.” Göll analyzed parallels between the Nazi and Soviet regimes. In his entry on July 3, 1941 he stated his shrewd awareness of the Holocaust: “It is an open secret … that they are proceeding against the Jews in the most rigorous way with sterilizations, removal to the eastern territories…”, which, in Fritzsche’s opinion, set him apart from most Germans at the time. In the last two years of the war Göll expressed his anti-Nazi views, recited, like many Berliners, caustic jokes about Hitler’s government and showed little anti-Semitism, although the traces of the latter still lingered in his post-war entries.

The book also gave me an answer to my question on how some regular Germans viewed the Nazi regime and the defeat of Germany immediately postwar, which was definitely not something freely expressed in memoirs. In November 1947 Göll wrote:

“Although we became culpable, we also paid heavily, and now we should draw a line under this completed account. We should not think of ourselves as better than other people, but we are also certainly not worse. We are guilty of having done too little; let the others take care not to be guilty of doing too much. And when we are accused of being ‘war criminals’, then we have every right to respond, ‘Peace saboteurs!’ ” In Peter Fritzsche’s opinion, Göll was not alone in dismissing the case for German guilt.

The Turbulent World of Franz Göll made me want to read the diaries and memoirs in full. Fritzsche’s analysis, despite his scholarly style, is incredibly interesting, and I wonder how objective he has been in summarizing Göll’s vast works. If you are interested in an in-depth exploration of German mentality and do not mind psychology jargon and references to Nietzsche, you will certainly find this book engrossing.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Finished reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll on Sunday;
  • Not much writing and revising done because my laptop died on Friday. The weekend was taken up by home and family, and I got to Best Buy only on Monday. Thankfully, the culprit was a broken power adapter and nothing more!
  • Searched the Bundesarchiv database for old photos of Leipzig and downloaded a few. I still have a hard time visualizing Leipzig streets.  I cannot find a Third Reich-era map of the city although I have downloaded several wartime maps of Berlin and a German occupation map of Kiev.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Write and revise as much as possible (and treat my laptop with care!);
  • No readings planned because I want to focus on writing;
  • For a change, make a film review post.

ROW80 Check-In: Train travel in 1945 Germany

My main characters are about to leave Berlin for Leipzig. What was it like to travel in Germany in the summer of 1945?

The Third Reich boasted an excellent railway system that allowed moving large masses of people and cargo speedily and efficiently. Wehrmacht troops could be shuttled between the Eastern and Western fronts, Jews deported East, Soviet forced laborers moved West. The Reichsbahn, as the railway system was called, made all this possible.

It was only to be expected that the railroads and stations became the prime targets for Allied bombing attacks.

After the capitulation of Germany, the national railway system was in shambles. At the same time, Europe was a continent on the move. According to Wikipedia, it is estimated that from 11 million to 20 million people found themselves stranded after the end of the war. For comparison, the modern population of Portugal, the 12th most populous country in Europe, is about 10.5 million, and the population of Romania, the 10th most populous country, is about 22 million.

Liberated Allied and released German POWs, former inmates of concentration camps and forced laborers, refugees who fled from the Soviet Army, ethnic Germans expelled from Eastern European countries, citizens of Germany proper forced out by bombing raids and battle action – everyone scrambled to find a way home or a place to live.

These Bundesarchiv photos show what it was like to travel by train in 1945-1946. Source:  Wikimedia Commons.

Eberswalde railway station, 1946

Refugees from Pomerania, East and West Prussia at Lehrter railway station in Berlin. 1945

A railway station in Thuringia, August 1945. Note how close to the railway tracks the people are sitting. They are ready to storm the overcrowded train the second it arrives.

Nowadays a train ride from Berlin to Leipzig would take less than an hour and half. Traveling the same distance in 1945 could take more than a day. How complicated could it be for my characters? Would they have to wait for hours at a station to change trains if there were no direct train? What station could it be then? Would my characters have to travel on foot through some areas because of destroyed railroads?

To answer the questions I have ordered these books through an inter-library loan:

The most valuable asset of the Reich: a history of the German National Railway. Vol. 2, 1933-1945 by Alfred C. Mierzejewski

The collapse of the German war economy, 1944-1945: Allied air power and the German National Railway by Alfred C. Mierzejewski

Die Chronik der deutschen Reichsbahn 1945-1993; Eisenbahn in der DDR by Eric Preuss, Reiner Preuss

Zehn Jahre Wiederaufbau bei dei Deutschen Bundesbahn, 1945-1955 by Deutsche Bundesbahn

Hopefully, I will have them in two or three weeks.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Ordered books on German railways but postponed ordering books on wartime Leipzig because of the 4-book inter-library loan limit;
  • Inching my way through The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century;
  • Still re-writing the Berlin part.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Move on to the part covering the trip from Berlin to Leipzig;
  • Finish reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche;
  • Make a book review post.

Book Review: Marie Vassiltchikov and Ursula von Kardorff

In this post we return to wartime Berlin, shown by the diaries of two young, intellectual ladies. Since my goal is to give my fictional characters realistic wartime experiences, my reading list includes a large number of memoirs, diaries and personal accounts.

Diary of a Nightmare, Berlin 1942-1945 by Ursula von Kardorff

Berlin Diaries, 1940-1945 by Marie Vassiltchikov

Ursula von Kardorff and Princess Marie Vassiltchikov were both born into nobility, worked in the press and propaganda under the Nazis and had a number of mutual friends, some of whom participated in the 20 July plot to kill Hitler. They might have been involved in the conspiracy, but, of course, neither put the dangerous evidence in her diary.

Although neither mentioned the other in her diaries, they most likely ran into each other because of their overlapping social circles. Highly educated and anti-Nazi, they chronicled their lives in wartime Germany. Each gave her perspective on events, with many similarities but also with differences, Ursula being a German, and Marie being a Russian émigré.

Marie left Russia in 1919 with her parents, Prince Illarion and Princess Lydia Vassiltchikov. She grew up as a refugee and lived in Germany, France and Lithuania.

In 1940 Marie and her sister Tatiana moved to Berlin in search of jobs. After the Great Depression it was impossible for a foreigner to get a work permit in any of the Western democracies. Only in Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy could a stateless person obtain a job. With the help of their network of aristocratic friends, Marie landed a job with the Broadcasting Service and then with the Foreign Ministry’s Information Department, which put her in the heart of the Nazi propaganda machine. Ironically, Marie met there a group of staunch anti-Nazi resisters, many of whom were later executed for their participation in the 20 July plot.

Marie painted a fascinating picture of a life of an aristocratic young lady in Berlin: weekends at princely castles and work doldrums, embassy parties and bombing raids, dining at fine restaurants and stretching skimpy rations. She viewed the life around her from a foreigner’s distance, which showed in her position toward the 20 July plot. Her support was dictated by her anti-Nazi and anti-war convictions, while for the others the big part of their motivation was also their German patriotism.

At the end of the war Marie volunteered to work as a nurse in the Luftwaffe Lazarett in Vienna. Her diary shows a captivating picture of the last war months in Vienna together with her flight to the American zone.

Unlike Marie, Ursula moved mostly in the circles of German intelligentsia. Her father, a painter, had to resign from his position at the faculty of the School of the Academy of Art for his refusal to support anti-Semitism. Ursula worked as a journalist for the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, a respectable German newspaper. Her diaries describe the demands placed by the regime on the German press, like the obligation to run anti-Semitic materials in every issue and the avoidance of anything that could be classified as defeatism.

Like Marie, Ursula portrayed the wartime deprivations but her view of the life and people in Berlin was much more intimate because she was part of the fabric of middle-class Germany. Ursula recounted rumors that circulated in the society, including the misperception that forced foreign laborers somehow aided the Allies in their bombings.

Her diary is honest about her doubts, ignorance and inner conflicts in regard to her patriotic loyalties. We can read her reflections on the news from the Eastern front when her brother and boyfriend fought in the Soviet Union. The information she received was fragmented, confused and unsettling. Her brother’s death made her question the purpose of the war, and her boyfriend, who survived, was apparently reticent about his experiences.

Ursula spent the last months of the war traveling outside Berlin, first to be with her dying father at a hospital in Rostock, then to get away from the Russians. After the capitulation of Germany she traveled back to Berlin to meet her mother there and recounted the excitement, horror and chaos of the first postwar months in her diary.

It was interesting to read the books together and compare the viewpoints. Ursula and Marie both had a sharp eye and easy writing style, devoid of self-pity. They did not wallow in their sufferings, but ploughed on, taking care of their loved ones and helping others.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Since I missed three check-ins, I made up by reviewing two books in this post;
  • Halfway through The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century;
  • Re-wrote most of the part I had planned to revise. Still in Berlin, though.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Move on to the part covering the trip from Berlin to Leipzig;
  • Order books on wartime Leipzig and the state of German railways in 1945 through an inter-library loan;
  • Finish reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche;
  • Make a book review post.

Art Review: WWII in Ukraine as seen by Georgiy Malakov

The Internet ushered in a new version of the history of the Soviet Union created online by hundreds of Russian, Ukrainian, Baltic and other users who put their efforts into interviewing surviving witnesses, studying old periodicals and private archives, and arguing about grand events and minute details of history in forums. They have a common purpose: to uncover and publicize the truth about the Soviet Union to replace Soviet propaganda.

It would be hard to find a family in the former Soviet territories that has not been affected by WWII.  My generation grew up with all sorts of wartime stories passed on in families. How much were we told? Episodes were skipped because our grandparents or parents did not want us to spill them in public. Narratives were edited to conform to the official history version. Still, the adults occasionally shared uncensored memory bits, usually with a warning: “Don’t tell others”.

In the 90’s grandchildren and great-grandchildren of the wartime generations gained the freedom and the Internet to share information, fill in gaps and answer many questions suppressed in the past. Thousands of personal accounts and memoirs by WWII veterans and civilians have been uploaded to online archives like Unfortunately, only a small part of this historical treasure has been translated into English.

Nevertheless, there are different kinds of memoirs that cut through language barriers: works by artists who lived through the war. One of them was Georgiy Malakov, a Ukrainian graphic artist who in his childhood already showed his talent. When Germans occupied his hometown of Kiev in 1941, he was 13 years old and could not live without drawing. Georgiy chronicled his experiences in his pictures, developing a visual diary of life in the Nazi-occupied city. This   album   contains works he drew either during the war or soon after the war, as well as his later graphics based on old sketches like this one:

Closed area: Kreshchatik is burning. Watercolor, ink, pen (1959).

Per Stalin’s orders many buildings in Kiev were mined as the Soviet Army retreated. When Germans took over the city, Soviet secret agents left behind set off the radio controlled mines. The explosions resulted in raging fires, casualties among Kievans and Germans and loss of homes by many civilians.

Linocut prints by Georgiy Malakov:

Kiev on June 22, 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Luftwaffe bombed Kiev at 4 am the same day. Nobody in the city knew that a war had started (1961).

 Kreshchatik, the main central street, is burning. September 1941 (1961).

During a German air raid. Judging by the New Year tree, it is late December 1943/early January 1944. Kiev railway station is visible in the window (1965).

Hiking home after the liberation of Kiev. During the last days of the occupation the Nazi government ordered the residents to leave the city under the threat of death (1962).

Picture sources:

My ROW80 progress:

  • Made a post about Georgiy Malakov and assembled an album of his artwork. It took lots more time than I expected. First, Internet Explorer installed on my laptop went on strike. After struggling with it for two days, I switched to Mozilla Firefox. Second, the process of uploading multiple images to my blog and translating Ukrainian captions turned out more arduous than I thought. Along the way I discovered an interesting Russian website with a day-to-day overview of events in wartime Kiev, which sidetracked me for hours;
  • Started reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century, but advanced little because of the issues above;
  • Revisions – none.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Focus on revising the part covering the Battle of Berlin and its aftermath;
  • Continue reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche, time permitting;
  • Make a book review post. No complicated graphics!

Book Review: Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule by Karel C. Berkhoff


In his book, Karel Berkhoff diligently presents the politics and realities of life in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, the largest colony of the Third Reich.

I appreciated the author’s careful avoidance of labels like “traitors” or “resistance”. Instead, Berkhoff thoroughly portrays the complexities, contradictions and variations across different regions of Ukraine. He clearly distingiushes between largely nationalistic Western Ukraine and historically pro-Russian industrial regions in Eastern Ukraine, and between the rural and urban communities.

It is a great depiction of how the locals’ attitudes toward the Nazi occupiers evolved from neutral curiosity or enthusiastic welcome to widespread fear and hatred. One of the chapters is devoted to the famine in Kiev engineered by the German authorities because Hitler doomed the city to extinction. The harvest of 1941 was plentiful in many areas, and lots of peasants found their lives much improved once the collective farms imposed by the Soviet rule disintegrated. However, the German policies of robbery and exploitation along with the forced reinstatement of collective farming soon drove the agricultural sector into the ground. Routine brutality and disregard for human rights were nothing new for residents of Ukraine, but the German government took violence and oppression to new heights, making many people view the Stalin rule as benign, even desirable, and fueling the armed partisan resistance.

I found this book very educational regarding the ethnic strife in Ukraine, since the subject is scarcely covered in other sources on the Nazi occupation of Soviet territories. Annihilation of Polish villages by Ukrainians and vice versa, open anti-Semitism of many locals along with some civilians risking their lives to save Jews, alienation of local ethnic German communities against Slavs, and many residents’ indifference to national labels, often not bothering to figure out whether they were Russians or Ukrainians until the Nazis occupied their homeland and Ukrainian nationalist extremists reared their heads – Berkhoff takes care to cover every piece of the ethnic mosaic that made up Ukraine.

Harvest of Despair is the most comprehensive book about the Reichskommissariat Ukraine that I have found so far. Although the writing is dry at times, Berkhoff uses many personal accounts and anecdotes to enliven the historical facts.

The book could benefit from more detailed maps of different areas of Ukraine. Berkhoff notes many cities, towns, villages and districts, which can be confusing for a reader not very familiar with Soviet geography. The map included is too general and does not show most of the localities mentioned.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Finished reading Harvest of Despair;
  • Posted a new book review;
  • Revised my current chapter almost up to the start of the Battle of Berlin.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Start reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche;
  • Revise the part covering the Battle of Berlin and its aftermath;
  • Make a post about an Ukrainian artist’s rendition of his experiences in Nazi-occupied Kiev.

ROW80 Check-in

The last three days  I was going in circles. I have an episode in which the two main characters finally have a chance to talk one-on-one and tell about themselves. The first version of the dialogue sounded stilted and forced. It was too unnatural for two strangers to reveal incriminating details about themselves in a casual chat.

In the second version of the episode I brought in a bottle of Bordeaux. It helped a bit, but the female character was still wary and refused to drink more than one glass. The male character consumed most of the wine and was unhappy.

On the third re-write I added a bottle of Riesling to the Bordeaux, and the ice broke. The conversation flowed, albeit a bit incoherently, but the girl ended up sitting in the man’s lap. Now I am throwing out the old “morning after” part and writing a new one with the hangover factored in.

No modern history research is possible without period photos. Bundesarchiv picture database is a treasure trove of photos and posters from the Third Reich era. Another fabulous archive is BPK (Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz) . It has a great collection of color photos of Nazi-occupied Ukraine. However, since those are German archives, you will need to use German search terms and German spellings of geographical names. For example, Kiew instead of Kiev, Charkow instead of Kharkov or Russland instead of Russia. Ukraine is spelled the same in German.

Since one of my main characters is an Ostarbeiterin, a female forced laborer from the Soviet Union, here are a couple of Bundesarchiv photos showing such women.

At a factory in Berlin these women workers ate their lunch in a separate room to prevent mixing with Germans. Note the OST badges that they were required to wear. Some of them are very young. Many of the forced laborers were teenagers and children as young as 1o years old.
Forced laborers from the Soviet Union at an automotive repair shop in Berlin.
Goals for this week:
  • Rewrite the part leading up to the Battle of Berlin, and, if time allows, the part covering the Battle of Berlin;
  • Finish Harvest of Despair by Karel C. Berkhoff;
  • Post a book review.