Georgiy Malakov: Wartime Kiev in Pictures

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Georgiy Vasilyevich Malakov (1928-1979) was a talented Ukrainian artist who lived in Kiev. His specialty was linocut printing, a technique in which the relief surface is created on a sheet of linoleum. He illustrated many books, including The Decameron, The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak, Quentin Durward, as well as books by prominent Russian authors. Some of his linocut art can be found here: http://gorod.tomsk.ru/index-1263731901.php

When the Nazis occupied Kiev in 1941, Georgiy was 13 years old. He had developed love for drawing and already showed his talent. During the occupation he chronicled his experiences in his drawings, creating a pictorial diary.

The graphic works below show the era through the eyes of a teenage boy Goga (as Georgiy Malakov was called by his family and friends). Most of them were created either during the war or soon after the war from the diary sketches. In these pictures we often see Goga’s brother, Dima, who was 4 years old in 1941.

Picture sources:

http://reibert.info/forum/album.php?albumid=5540&pictureid=177961

http://reibert.livejournal.com/24754.html

http://reibert.livejournal.com/46904.html

Communal kitchen, Kruglouniversitetskiy street, 7-a (14), Apt. 29. Khanon, Goga, Dima, Nikita Terentyevich and Antonina Grigoryevna.

Dad burning “bad” books in the communal kitchen. In the background – Karmalyga and Khanon. 1937.

Red Commanders

Red Commanders.

At the exhibition of captured weapons in Pervomayskiy Park. 1939.

(In 1939 the Soviet Union invaded Poland. – S.K.)

June 22, 1941: First bombs. Kozlovskaya Street.

Goga and Nina, Institutskiy St., 20, Apt. 6.

Goga and Dima heading for Pervomayskiy Park. July 1941.

Top: Goga and Dima sit out an air raid in a trench at the 1st of May Park. July 1941.

Center: Goga watches an antiaircraft gun repel an air attack. July 1941.

Bottom: June 30, 1941. A public meeting by a downed German Ju-88 plane in front of the City Council.

Kievans watch an aerial battle over the city. July 1941.

Boys run to look at a German Ju-88 plane. June 30, 1941.

Goga walks past barricades. July 1941.

Goga and Dima see a captured tank in Tereschenkovskaya Street. August 1941.

Goga and Dima turn in empty bottles for Molotov cocktails. The text on the square box reads “Sand”.

From Institutskaya Street one can already see the smoke over Goloseevo. September 1941.

(Institutskaya Street is in the center of the city, and Goloseevo is a southern district of Kiev. – S.K.)

Explosion of Tsepnoy Bridge: the window panes in the kitchen were blown out. September 1941.

(Per Stalin’s orders bridges, factories, important buildings, etc, were to be destroyed to prevent Germans from using them. – S.K.)

Kievans loot stores, savings banks, bakeries. September 17-19, 1941.

(Soviet authorities fled Kiev, but Germans did not arrive yet. From September 17 to September 19, 1941, the city had no government at all. The residents plundered state stores and establishments. – S.K.)

Top: Loot the loot – Flour.

Center: Grab the can!

Bottom: Kievans plunder a grocery store.

The first German motorcyclist in Kiev. September 19, 1941.

First Germans in Kreshchatik. September 19, 1941.

(Kreshchatik is the main street in the center of Kiev – S.K.)

Germans loot apartments in Kiev. September 1941.

Goga carries water down Institutskaya Street. September 20, 1941.

Germans in front of a Soviet propaganda poster. September 1941.

German graves by the entrance to Pervomayskiy Park. September 1941.

(Note that a flower bed like the one on the left was used for the graves.- S.K.)

The look of the victor.

German graves in Shevchenko Park. September 1941.

German soldier with a MG-34 machine gun: rear view.

German soldier with a MG-34 machine gun: front view.

Memento from Kiev: Germans near a tank from the Russian Civil War.

Germans in Kiev streets. September 1941.

Kievans (including Goga) turn in gas masks at Kreshchatik, 27. September 1941.

(German authorities ordered the locals to turn in firearms, gas masks and radio sets within 24 hours under the threat of shooting. – S.K.)

Kievans carry radio sets from a warehouse set up in a Lutheran church. September 1941.

(Apparently this took place before the German order to surrender radio sets. On June 25, 1941, the Soviet government ordered Soviet citizens to hand in their radio sets to the authorities for temporary storage. – S.K.)

The room in Proreznaya Street shook from the first explosion in Kreshchatik on September 24, 1941.

(Per Soviet orders, many buildings and strategic objects were mined before the retreat. Secret agents left behind set off the radio-controlled mines when Germans occupied the city. The result was fires that raged for days, numerous casualties among locals and Germans, and loss of housing for many Kievans. German sappers managed to disable some mines and save a number of landmarks. – S.K.)

From the kitchen in Proreznaya Street one can see the smoke over Kreshchatik. September 24, 1941.

Kreshchatik exploding. September 24, 1941.

We flee our home in Institutskaya Street (Mariya Andreevna, Nina, Mom, Aunt Vera, Goga and Dima). September 24, 1941.A German soldier kicks doors out.

Nina, Mom and Goga in the ruins of their burned-down apartment block at Institutskaya St., 20. October 1941.

Pies and soup in the “gluttony row” at a market.

At Sennoy market.

Pies, tea and “cockerels” at a market.

(A “cockerel” is a hard transparent candy shaped like a rooster on a stick. They came in different colors – red, green, yellow, etc. In this picture you can see the “cockerel” lollipops set out like flowers in a jar on the left.- S.K.)

Peasants barter food for clothes and goods in an apartment of city intelligentsia. December 1941.

Devices for  lighting and producing fire in 1941-1944.

First job: Goga paints over the numbers on “one-and-half-ton” trucks in Respublikanskiy sports arena. Fall 1941.

(“One-and-half-ton”, or”polutorka” in Russian, was the most common model of Soviet trucks. Germans captured and put into service a large number of “polutorkas”. – S.K.)

Soviet prisoners of war in a street in Podol (a district of Kiev). Fall 1941.

Announcement by the occupation authorities that 300 civilian hostages had been shot for the acts of underground resistance, namely an arson at the City Council. November 2, 1941.

(The other poster with Hitler’s portrait reads: Hitler-Liberator. –  S.K.)

Arrest of the Ukrainian National Council at Fundukleevskaya St., 31. December 13, 1941.

Kiev tailors rip cotton wool from gas mask cans. December 1941.

(Quilted jackets, vests and pants with cotton wool padding were popular as winter clothing. – S.K.)

Reading an underground newspaper at Gogolevskaya Street, 34-a, Apt. 63: Dima, Uncle Tolya, Goga, Mom, Nina and Aunt Vera. January 1942.

(The newspaper title is “Communist”. The round piece on the wall on the right is a wire radio loudspeaker. -S.K.)

A Gestapo guard at Vladimirskaya Street, 33. 1942

The SS flag in a Soviet holder. Vladimirskaya Street, 33. 1942.

Above the railway tracks at Kiev-Passenger station, 1942.

A boy carts a German officer’s luggage. 1942.

(Teenage boys often carted luggage for Germans from railway stations to their billets. The pay usually was with food – bread, chocolate, etc., which helped their starving families. Note the woman with a dog. German officials and staff brought their wives or girlfriends to Kiev, away from the Allied bombings in Germany. Kievans frequently saw German women walking their  dogs.S.K.)

Goga walks to work past the police garage on the corner of Nekrasovskaya Street. 1942.

In the backyard of the Labor Office – Wirtschaftsleiter Hahn. 1942.

Goga works at Arts and Crafts Workshops. (The big benefit was that his pay included a serving of hot stew for lunch. – S.K.)

Sennoy market in 1942.

A boy in a “budennovka” cap sells cigarettes.

An Italian soldier. 1943.

A German official from the district commissariat.

Hungarian soldiers. 1942.

A round-up at Sennoy market.

(Round-ups of civilians for local fortifications work or labor in Germany became a routine event in 1942. – S.K.)

The head of the Labor Office, Dr. Hoppe, inspects Goga’s labor card. Behind the wheel of the Mercedes is driver Petya.

The round-up at Sennoy market is coming to an end.

Goga walks past a local policeman at Lvovskaya, 91.

Reaction of the local audience to German newsreels. 1943.

Goga cleans a window in a sculpture workshop. 1942.

(It was common to glue paper strips across windowpanes to prevent their shattering from distant explosions. – S.K.)

Katrusya, Goga and “Shevchenkos”. 1942

(Taras Shevchenko was a prominent Ukrainian poet, artist and humanist who lived in 19th century. Various effigies and busts of Shevchenko (like the ones seen here) were ubiquitous in Ukraine. –  S.K.)

Working at the Workshops, 1942.

(Note the busts of Taras Shevchenko. – S.K.)

A mark on the window frame – a drawing of an imaginary character Akulkin. 1942.

Goga draws for the girls. 1942.

Meeting and working with Katrusya Krichevskaya. Musya Golovko, Katrusya and Goga in a park in Kudryavskaya Street.

Goga visits Viktor Mikhaylovich Mernoy. 1943.

Knight Akulkin. Drawing made in 1943.

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One comment on “Georgiy Malakov: Wartime Kiev in Pictures

  1. […] allt som 13-åring och det verkar vara hans teckningar från den tiden man kan se på denna sajt. Där kan man följa tiden från ockupationen 1941 till befrielsen […]

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