Book Review: The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche

This unusual book gave me very good insights into the German mindset. Along with creating realistic settings, my major writing challenge is to make my characters’ mentalities true to the era. It is not easy because it is natural for a human to skip or minimize less favorable episodes in his recollections and memoirs.

At the state archives in Berlin Peter Fritzsche found notebooks filled with writings by Franz Göll, an obscure Berliner. Göll was a loner and a graphoman, a low-level white-collar worker, who wrote down his daily impressions, reflections on his romantic affairs, summaries of his self-studies, musings on the official propaganda, and household accounting records that spanned the era from Kaiser Wilhelm II to Ronald Reagan.

Impressed by the scope of Göll’s diaries and memoirs, Peter Fritzche presented his overview and analysis of the remarkable historical evidence in The Turbulent World of Franz Göll. He outlined the evolution of Göll’s views, noted the clarity or ambiguity of different entries and highlighted the limitations of Göll’s judgments together with the depth of his thought, all supported by extensive quotes from Göll’s works.

Because of Göll’s ordinariness, his diaries reflected the popular ideas and stereotypes. At the same time, his inquisitive mind now and then allowed him to rise above the crowd and analyze the political and economical developments with the detachment of a scientific observer. He received only a basic formal education but he also was a voracious reader and avid self-learner.

An important advantage of Göll’s work was the unadulterated documentation of the life around him. Many Third Reich-era diaries and memoirs published after the war have a common defect: they were edited to conform to the new social standards. For example, Ursula von Kardorff, the author of Diary of a Nightmare, Berlin 1942-1945, toned down her epithets for American and British bombers when she prepared her diaries for publication.

But Göll’s writings were not “sanitized”, so they showed his changing perceptions. During the Weimar Republic he wanted a strong leader who could end the strife among numerous political parties and pull Germany out of the economic abyss. The Darwinian idea of survival struggle captivated him, and he applied it to everything beyond the animal world, including European politics. In the 1920’s he noted magazine articles about “the perfection of Aryanism”, “the Karma of the German people” and “a new era of global wars and the resurrection of Germany” although he made no distinction between Germans and Jews yet.

In the 1930’s he analyzed the genetics of his own family (he called it a “hereditary biological study”), much in the spirit of the times. Because of the necessity to prove his Aryanness, he researched his genealogy, which he found interesting and satisfying. He pondered the concept of genetically superior and inferior races, citing the blacks and whites in America. In 1932 he commented on the Jews’ “elaborate and immoral business conduct” and pegged them as “con men”.

Fritzsche demonstrates that Göll supported the Nazi party when it came to power, and how his excitement and anti-Semitism waned after a few years. Nevertheless, the Third Reich years were the zenith of Göll’s career success, when he was promoted to a department manager at Springer Publishers. He enjoyed state-subsidized vacation trips under the Strength through Joy program, which made it possible for an average German to travel as a tourist. It was also the highest point of his civic involvement and authority, when he served as an air raid warden for his apartment block. At the same time he derided the Nazis’ habit of “serving up anti-Semitic atrocities” and likened them to “highly skilled, if voracious, predators”. In his opinion, “the National Socialist regime aimed to commit and bind – preferably crisscross – every single person.” Göll analyzed parallels between the Nazi and Soviet regimes. In his entry on July 3, 1941 he stated his shrewd awareness of the Holocaust: “It is an open secret … that they are proceeding against the Jews in the most rigorous way with sterilizations, removal to the eastern territories…”, which, in Fritzsche’s opinion, set him apart from most Germans at the time. In the last two years of the war Göll expressed his anti-Nazi views, recited, like many Berliners, caustic jokes about Hitler’s government and showed little anti-Semitism, although the traces of the latter still lingered in his post-war entries.

The book also gave me an answer to my question on how some regular Germans viewed the Nazi regime and the defeat of Germany immediately postwar, which was definitely not something freely expressed in memoirs. In November 1947 Göll wrote:

“Although we became culpable, we also paid heavily, and now we should draw a line under this completed account. We should not think of ourselves as better than other people, but we are also certainly not worse. We are guilty of having done too little; let the others take care not to be guilty of doing too much. And when we are accused of being ‘war criminals’, then we have every right to respond, ‘Peace saboteurs!’ ” In Peter Fritzsche’s opinion, Göll was not alone in dismissing the case for German guilt.

The Turbulent World of Franz Göll made me want to read the diaries and memoirs in full. Fritzsche’s analysis, despite his scholarly style, is incredibly interesting, and I wonder how objective he has been in summarizing Göll’s vast works. If you are interested in an in-depth exploration of German mentality and do not mind psychology jargon and references to Nietzsche, you will certainly find this book engrossing.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Finished reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll on Sunday;
  • Not much writing and revising done because my laptop died on Friday. The weekend was taken up by home and family, and I got to Best Buy only on Monday. Thankfully, the culprit was a broken power adapter and nothing more!
  • Searched the Bundesarchiv database for old photos of Leipzig and downloaded a few. I still have a hard time visualizing Leipzig streets.  I cannot find a Third Reich-era map of the city although I have downloaded several wartime maps of Berlin and a German occupation map of Kiev.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Write and revise as much as possible (and treat my laptop with care!);
  • No readings planned because I want to focus on writing;
  • For a change, make a film review post.
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Book Review: Marie Vassiltchikov and Ursula von Kardorff

In this post we return to wartime Berlin, shown by the diaries of two young, intellectual ladies. Since my goal is to give my fictional characters realistic wartime experiences, my reading list includes a large number of memoirs, diaries and personal accounts.

Diary of a Nightmare, Berlin 1942-1945 by Ursula von Kardorff

Berlin Diaries, 1940-1945 by Marie Vassiltchikov

Ursula von Kardorff and Princess Marie Vassiltchikov were both born into nobility, worked in the press and propaganda under the Nazis and had a number of mutual friends, some of whom participated in the 20 July plot to kill Hitler. They might have been involved in the conspiracy, but, of course, neither put the dangerous evidence in her diary.

Although neither mentioned the other in her diaries, they most likely ran into each other because of their overlapping social circles. Highly educated and anti-Nazi, they chronicled their lives in wartime Germany. Each gave her perspective on events, with many similarities but also with differences, Ursula being a German, and Marie being a Russian émigré.

Marie left Russia in 1919 with her parents, Prince Illarion and Princess Lydia Vassiltchikov. She grew up as a refugee and lived in Germany, France and Lithuania.

In 1940 Marie and her sister Tatiana moved to Berlin in search of jobs. After the Great Depression it was impossible for a foreigner to get a work permit in any of the Western democracies. Only in Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy could a stateless person obtain a job. With the help of their network of aristocratic friends, Marie landed a job with the Broadcasting Service and then with the Foreign Ministry’s Information Department, which put her in the heart of the Nazi propaganda machine. Ironically, Marie met there a group of staunch anti-Nazi resisters, many of whom were later executed for their participation in the 20 July plot.

Marie painted a fascinating picture of a life of an aristocratic young lady in Berlin: weekends at princely castles and work doldrums, embassy parties and bombing raids, dining at fine restaurants and stretching skimpy rations. She viewed the life around her from a foreigner’s distance, which showed in her position toward the 20 July plot. Her support was dictated by her anti-Nazi and anti-war convictions, while for the others the big part of their motivation was also their German patriotism.

At the end of the war Marie volunteered to work as a nurse in the Luftwaffe Lazarett in Vienna. Her diary shows a captivating picture of the last war months in Vienna together with her flight to the American zone.

Unlike Marie, Ursula moved mostly in the circles of German intelligentsia. Her father, a painter, had to resign from his position at the faculty of the School of the Academy of Art for his refusal to support anti-Semitism. Ursula worked as a journalist for the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, a respectable German newspaper. Her diaries describe the demands placed by the regime on the German press, like the obligation to run anti-Semitic materials in every issue and the avoidance of anything that could be classified as defeatism.

Like Marie, Ursula portrayed the wartime deprivations but her view of the life and people in Berlin was much more intimate because she was part of the fabric of middle-class Germany. Ursula recounted rumors that circulated in the society, including the misperception that forced foreign laborers somehow aided the Allies in their bombings.

Her diary is honest about her doubts, ignorance and inner conflicts in regard to her patriotic loyalties. We can read her reflections on the news from the Eastern front when her brother and boyfriend fought in the Soviet Union. The information she received was fragmented, confused and unsettling. Her brother’s death made her question the purpose of the war, and her boyfriend, who survived, was apparently reticent about his experiences.

Ursula spent the last months of the war traveling outside Berlin, first to be with her dying father at a hospital in Rostock, then to get away from the Russians. After the capitulation of Germany she traveled back to Berlin to meet her mother there and recounted the excitement, horror and chaos of the first postwar months in her diary.

It was interesting to read the books together and compare the viewpoints. Ursula and Marie both had a sharp eye and easy writing style, devoid of self-pity. They did not wallow in their sufferings, but ploughed on, taking care of their loved ones and helping others.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Since I missed three check-ins, I made up by reviewing two books in this post;
  • Halfway through The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century;
  • Re-wrote most of the part I had planned to revise. Still in Berlin, though.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Move on to the part covering the trip from Berlin to Leipzig;
  • Order books on wartime Leipzig and the state of German railways in 1945 through an inter-library loan;
  • Finish reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche;
  • Make a book review post.

Book Review: Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule by Karel C. Berkhoff

 

In his book, Karel Berkhoff diligently presents the politics and realities of life in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, the largest colony of the Third Reich.

I appreciated the author’s careful avoidance of labels like “traitors” or “resistance”. Instead, Berkhoff thoroughly portrays the complexities, contradictions and variations across different regions of Ukraine. He clearly distingiushes between largely nationalistic Western Ukraine and historically pro-Russian industrial regions in Eastern Ukraine, and between the rural and urban communities.

It is a great depiction of how the locals’ attitudes toward the Nazi occupiers evolved from neutral curiosity or enthusiastic welcome to widespread fear and hatred. One of the chapters is devoted to the famine in Kiev engineered by the German authorities because Hitler doomed the city to extinction. The harvest of 1941 was plentiful in many areas, and lots of peasants found their lives much improved once the collective farms imposed by the Soviet rule disintegrated. However, the German policies of robbery and exploitation along with the forced reinstatement of collective farming soon drove the agricultural sector into the ground. Routine brutality and disregard for human rights were nothing new for residents of Ukraine, but the German government took violence and oppression to new heights, making many people view the Stalin rule as benign, even desirable, and fueling the armed partisan resistance.

I found this book very educational regarding the ethnic strife in Ukraine, since the subject is scarcely covered in other sources on the Nazi occupation of Soviet territories. Annihilation of Polish villages by Ukrainians and vice versa, open anti-Semitism of many locals along with some civilians risking their lives to save Jews, alienation of local ethnic German communities against Slavs, and many residents’ indifference to national labels, often not bothering to figure out whether they were Russians or Ukrainians until the Nazis occupied their homeland and Ukrainian nationalist extremists reared their heads – Berkhoff takes care to cover every piece of the ethnic mosaic that made up Ukraine.

Harvest of Despair is the most comprehensive book about the Reichskommissariat Ukraine that I have found so far. Although the writing is dry at times, Berkhoff uses many personal accounts and anecdotes to enliven the historical facts.

The book could benefit from more detailed maps of different areas of Ukraine. Berkhoff notes many cities, towns, villages and districts, which can be confusing for a reader not very familiar with Soviet geography. The map included is too general and does not show most of the localities mentioned.

My ROW80 progress:

  • Finished reading Harvest of Despair;
  • Posted a new book review;
  • Revised my current chapter almost up to the start of the Battle of Berlin.

This week’s ROW80 goals:

  • Start reading The Turbulent World of Franz Göll: An Ordinary Berliner Writes the Twentieth Century by Peter Fritzsche;
  • Revise the part covering the Battle of Berlin and its aftermath;
  • Make a post about an Ukrainian artist’s rendition of his experiences in Nazi-occupied Kiev.

Book Review: Berlin at War by Roger Moorhouse

As I have said before, my novel takes off in 1945 Berlin. For a reader with an average knowledge of WWII that would bring to mind classic images of destroyed Tiergarten and popular depictions of the mayhem in Central Berlin as the Red Army fought its way to the Reichstag.

The reality is that the war effects varied across Berlin because the city was huge. Here is a comparison of the levels of destruction and civilian casualties for Berlin-Mitte (Central Berlin) and Berlin-Reinickendorf, a northern suburb, immediately after the Battle of Berlin.

Berlin-Mitte             Berlin-Reinickendorf

% of residences destroyed:          over 50%                       19.8%

% of population lost:                          52.6%                            3.8%

Source: Reinickendorf 1945/1946. Die erste Nachkriegszeit  by Ulrike Wahlich, Heimatsmuseum Reinickendorf, 1995

To develop the settings in my story I needed a broader view of the city and its dwellers throughout the whole war. The last months of the war were a mere culmination of the years of the Nazi regime. Each of my Berlin characters, even minor ones, had been shaped by years of life in the city.

This book is a good starter reading for those who want to learn more about wartime Berlin: Berlin at War by Roger Moorhouse.

The book provides a ground-level view of daily life in Berlin: food rationing and foreign loot, press and radio, parades and air raids, popular enthusiasm and individual resistance, war profiting and survival struggle, humor and depression, and much more. Paradoxically, the residents of the Third Reich capital were among weakest Nazi supporters. I am inclined to attribute it to their proximity to the government apparatus and better awareness of the politics in the higher circles. Nevertheless, with the largely conformist attitude of the public, many Berliners eventually became complicit in the Nazi regime.

The author tracks changes in the moods of Berliners throughout the wartime and portrays a wide range of the city denizens: Jews, forced laborers from all over Europe and regular Germans. He draws on personal accounts and diaries to give us the emotional feel of what it was like for different people to live in Berlin.

I found it remarkable that, while the public knowledge of the Nazi concentration camp system was limited, the German populace largely ignored thousands of forced laborers brought into the city. Germans and foreign slaves lived in separate universes, although they walked the same streets and worked side by side in the same factories and institutions. It is truly sad to realize how certain types of popular culture and ideology could breed blindness and conformity. After all, was it so bad to believe that you belonged to the master race and could have the inferior races at your disposal?

Moorhouse’s narration is engaging and vivid, which makes his book an enlightening journey in time for a mainstream reader. It also provokes a lot of thoughts on how social order and ideology can affect a person’s sense of right and wrong.